The word "form" is eidos [whence the English expression "Theory of Ideas"]. unknowingly done -- as self-deception can be.). (A worthwhile dialog to imagine: "The Donkey" where Socrates' companion argues that the wise man will kick the donkey back). Diogenes Laertius. Selected Bibliography A. Greek mss.. According to Plato's Phaedo 96a -- which dialog is, from the point of view of its ideas, not an account of the historical Socrates (nor does it, I think, pretend to be (114d) history, or, "how it really was", (Thucydides 2.48.3)) -- because later Socrates took no interest in "physics" as anyone who had heard him talking would know (Apology 19c-d; cf. For Plato the usefulness of eating is to silence the body -- for otherwise the body "takes away from us the power of thinking at all" (Phaedo 66b-d, tr. Ameipsias too, when he puts him on the stage wearing a cloak, says: A. The Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers, tr. What is the proposition's meaning? He is also guilty of corrupting the youth. L. i, 14 and 18], he was the first who discoursed on the conduct of life, and the first philosopher who was tried and put to death. Aristotle relates that a magician came from Syria to Athens and, among other evils with which he threatened Socrates, predicted that he would come to a violent end. (Somehow I want to reject the response: "But is that the only possible explanation? Little is known about the third-century historian of philosophy, Diogenes Laertius. Is that what Plato has? Þó ber heimildum ekki saman um að þetta hafi verið aðdragandinn. He prided himself on his plain living, and never asked a fee from anyone. of a possible reality? But does that belief belong to "physics"? The affidavit in the case, which is still preserved, says Favorinus, in the Metroon, ran as follows: “This indictment and affidavit is sworn by Meletus, the son of Meletus of Pitthos, against Socrates, the son of Sophroniscus of Alopece: Socrates is guilty of refusing to recognize the gods recognized by the state, and introducing other new divinities. Even his real name is in question, as some scholars have suggested Laertius is a pen-name chosen to distinguish himself from the numerous other persons named Diogenes at the time. Jahrhunderts Inaugural-Dissertation zur Erlangung des Doktorgrades der Philosophie an der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München vorgelegt von Manuela Kahle Diogenes himself notices the agreement between Favorinus and Idomeneus of Lampsacus, a much earlier author, for he was a disciple of Epicurus, whom he knew from 310 to 270 b.c. When Anaxagoras was condemned, he [Socrates] became a pupil of [Anaxagoras' pupil] Archelaus the physicist ... (Diog. L. ii, 25), He could afford to despise those who scoffed at him [But see "ii, 21]. He could afford to despise those who scoffed at him. Again he served at Potidaea, whither he had gone by sea, as land communications were interrupted by the war; and while there he is said to have remained a whole night without changing his position, and to have won the prize of valour. (Cf. But philosophy is not mathematical; the subject matter of metaphysics -- namely, reality -- is independent of philosophers' equations. L. iii, 51-52 [p. 322a, 322b]). If we take that to mean that Socrates does not live for "the pleasures of the body" -- then for what does he live? This text was converted to electronic form by Data Entry and has been proofread to a low level of accuracy. iv, 6, 13), to lead, which made him a teacher in that sense of the word 'teacher'; Socrates also, by his own example, taught his companions the way of life of a philosopher --], and emphasizing the importance of self-knowledge and of not supposing that one knows what one does not know (Memorabilia iii, 9, 6). and a "factual" -- i.e. Metaphysics wants to know "what produces order and is the cause of everything", and it invents speculative theories about that, but neither logic nor ethics does. So says the entry in the Oxford Classical Dictionary 2nd ed. possible, although see Plato's account of how Socrates became a philosopher (Apology 21a-d). Lysis, again, he turned, by exhortation, into a most virtuous character. In my opinion Socrates discoursed on physics as well as on ethics, since he holds some conversations about providence, even according to Xanophon, who, however, declares that he only discussed ethics. Socrates created no cosmology, although Plato did (Aristotle, Metaphysics 1078a). Diogenes Laertios, to transcribe his name from the Greek language in which he wrote, flourished circa A.D. 200-250. (Diog. But that must not be seen as a sacrifice -- it is not a sacrifice to live wisely rather than wrong-doing through ignorance (nor is it dour: among the specific goods unique and proper to man is the friendship of good human beings, a mind unclouded by vice, and a sense of humor). But logic-of-language must also take facts into account -- and that does not destroy the distinction between logic and "physics". Thus far Demetrius. Leipzig: Felix Meiner 1921 (= Philosophische Bibliothek 53) Addeddate metaphysical (e.g. In his later work Wittgenstein talks about philosophy and grammar, not, engaged all the more keenly in argument with anyone who would converse with him, his aim being not to alter his [companion's] opinion but to get at the truth. He showed equal ability in both directions, in persuading and dissuading men; thus, after conversing with Theaetetus about knowledge, he sent him away, as Plato says, fired with a divine impulse; but when Euthyphro had indicted his father for manslaughter, Socrates, after some conversation with him upon piety, diverted him from his purpose. (Diog. Here follows a strange statement, and a possible example: Plato has employed a variety of terms in order to make his system less intelligible to the ignorant. He said that, when people paid a high price for fruit which had ripened early, they must despair of seeing the fruit ripen at the proper season. L. ii, 37), He used to say ... that he knew nothing except just the fact of his ignorance. Which did I intend? At all events, when someone told him that Antisthenes’ mother was a Thracian, he replied, “Nay, did you expect a man so noble to have been born of two Athenian parents?” He made Crito ransom Phaedo who, having been taken prisoner in the war, was kept in degrading slavery, and so won him for philosophy. Moreover, in his old age he learnt to play the lyre, declaring that he saw no absurdity in learning a new accomplishment. That will tell you if and how it is to be verified [determined to be true or false], if it is verifiable [if 'truth' and 'falsity' are applicable to it]. He showed his contempt for Archelaluse of Macedon and Scopas of Cranon and Eurylochus of Larissa by refusing to accept their presents or to go to their court. When Plato’s brother Glaucon was desirous of entering upon politics, Socrates dissuaded him, as Xenophon relates, because of his want of experience; but on the contrary he encouraged Charmides to take up politics because he had a gift that way. Whirl, as in the Olympus of Aristophanes, was the real king ..." (Brodrick, Origin of the Jesuits [1940] v, [1971] p. 143)] Anaxagoras' "vortex". (Diog. Harvard University Press. Ta sai oma ... II raamatu teemaks on Sokrates ning tema eelkäijad ja järgijad. ‘Tis he composed for EuripidesThose clever plays, much sound and little sense. Quote. Thus Aristophanes: O man that justly desirest great wisdom, how blessed will be thy life amongst Athenians and Greeks, retentive of memory and thinker that thou art, with endurance of toil for thy character; never art thou weary whether standing or walking, never numb with cold, never hungry for breakfast; from wine and from gross feeding and all other frivolities thou dost turn away. L. ii, 36), His self-control in such trials made Socrates feel himself to be each day "growing in goodness" (Xenophon, Memorabilia i, 6, 9; iv, 8, 6). Because "I don't know" ≠ 'I don't know'. L. ii, 20); Socrates introduced ethics ("no small matter, but how to live," Plato calls it) into "philosophy" (ibid. We see things at rest, not with the body's eyes, but with the eye of the soul. studying the clouds). Link. The best guess is that Diogenes Laertius wrote his collection of sketches of famous philosophers in the … Nogle kalder ham et geni. (Diog. Demetrius of Byzantium relates that Crito [who, Socrates says in Plato's Apology 33d-e, "is of the same age and of the same deme [i.e. if the Question of Providence belongs to Cosmology ... Plato's "treatment of themes Socrates disowned", The nature of sensible objects and of the Ideas (Forms), Thrasylus of Alexandria's classification scheme, The Subject Names of the Dialogs (and their type), bad habits acquired in the time of ignorance of the good, Socrates does not think he knows what he does not know, the question of meaning comes before the question of truth, https://www.roangelo.net/logwitt/diogenes-socrates.html. Cambridge. When Sokrates came to his workshop and discoursed, he used to make notes of what he remembered, whence these dialogues were called 'The Shoemakers"' … Again, when Charmides offered him some slaves in order that he might derive an income from them, he declined the offer: and according to some he scorned the beauty of Alcibiades. 110–111; and in Diogenis Laertii Vitae Philosophorum; recognovit H. S. Long, Oxonii, 1964 (“Oxford Classical Text”), Vol.I, p. xx. "), To one who said, "Don't you find so-and-so very offensive?" Diogenes himself notices the agreement between Fanorinus and Idomeneus of Lampsacus, a much earlier author, for he was a disciple of Epicurus, whom he knew from 310 to 270 b.c. That is metaphysics, but it does not "float free" of the facts. (Diog. L. ii, 28), Unlike most philosophers, he had no need to travel, except when required to go on an [military] expedition [The expeditions were to Amphipolis, Delium, and Potidaea. Again, he was the first who discoursed on the conduct of life, and the first philosopher who was tried and put to death. But Socrates himself was not a cosmologist. Buy Hoeders van de wijsheid: Griekse filosofen in honderdvijftig epigrammen 01 by P. Lateur (ISBN: 9789055739349) from Amazon's Book Store. But if Plato is not talking nonsense (i.e. how does Plato in his writings use that word?) Plato has the picture of a ghost resident (entombed, actually) in the body. space, time, moral imperatives. Get down!” When therefore he was condemned by 281 votes more than those given for acquittal, and when the judges were assessing what he should suffer on what fine he should pay, he proposed to pay 25 drachmae. But unlike Plato, Socrates did not deprecate the body's senses nor for that reason our life in it. There is, he said only one good, that is, knowledge, and only one evil, that is, ignorance; wealth and good birth bring their possessor no dignity, but on the contrary evil. Because the gods are fully rational, unlike man who is half irrational, the gods exist in full accord with the wisdom and thus moral excellence that is proper to them; and because Socrates does not think he knows what he does not know, he is as close to the gods in wisdom and thus moral virtue as man can be, and like them neither misleads his companions nor is himself misled (ibid. But philosophy is not mathematical; the subject matter of metaphysics -- namely, reality -- is independent of philosophers' equations. Archelaus [fl. ", "Practice doing what is right until it becomes a habit, because what we do from habit is sweet to us.". Nonetheless, Laertius stands as one of the most important sources of information about Socrates because most of the earlier primary and secondary sources cited in his sketch have been lost. -- investigation. It is not the meaning I invented for Hume's idea. (Diog. – 7.maí 399 f.Kr.) He used to say that he most enjoyed the food which was least in need of condiment, and the drink which made him feel the least hankering for some other drink; and that he was nearest to the gods in that he had the fewest wants. [MS 105 46 c: 1929])), Again, as there is great division of opinion between those who affirm and those who deny that Plato was a dogmatist, let me proceed to deal with this further question. (C.E. 99d-e). National Endowment for the Humanities Division of Preservation and Access provided support for entering this text. philosophy? L. iii, 63), He also uses contrary expressions for the same thing. When Anaxagoras was condemned, he became a pupil of Archelaus the physicist; Aristoxenus asserts that Archelaus was very fond of him. a Possibly the reference is to the same citation as in § 19 which Diogenes Laertius may have found independently in two of his authorities. of Diogenes Laertios (no less than thirty-seven, making him by far the biographer cited most often by the Laertian), the latter regarded him as a valuable source of in- ... speech of Polykrates against Sokrates is not genuine, since he mentions the rebuilding of the walls by Konon in it [393 B.C. (ii, 22; cf. With this Demetrius of Phalerum agrees: but some say he was sixty when he died. Euthydemus 278d-282a, tr. This may be seen from the Comic poets, who in the act of ridiculing him give him high praise. line 362] (Diog. Plato has Socrates speak of his disillusionment with Anaxagoras' book: he had heard someone say that Anaxagoras had written that "it is mind that produces order and is the cause of everything" (Phaedo 97b-c), but when Socrates himself read the book he "discovered that the fellow made no use of mind and assigned to it no causality for the order of the world" (ibid. ), Elsewhere I spoke of "programs" or "projects", sometimes (as with the Socrates of Plato's Apology) also "missions", in philosophy. Wittgenstein: "The riddle does not exist" (TLP 6.5) -- but maybe that was "just the sort of stupid remark I would have made in those days" (Recollections p. 98)? Pamphila in the seventh book of her Commentaries tells how Alcibiades once offered him a large site on which to build a house; but he replied, “Suppose, then, I wanted shoes and you offered me a whole hide to make a pair with, would it not be ridiculous in me to take it?” Often when he looked at the multitude of wares exposed for sale, he would say to himself, “How many things I can do without!” And he would continually recite the lines: The purple robe and silver’s shineMore fits an actor’s need than mine. And this is the case. Aristoxenus, the son of Spintharus, says of him that he made money; he would at all events invest sums, collect the interest accruing, and then, when this was expended, put out the principal again. divorce it from the work it does in the "language-game that is its original home"? Tredennick). But how is ethics not to take into account some "very general facts of nature" (PI II, xii p. 230a) if ethics is concerned with how man should live his life (pace Kant's categorical imperatives)? [But does Plato "believe in" souls? Diogenes Laertius: Leben und Meinungen berühmter Philosophen, übersetzt und erläutert von Otto Apelt. Both were pupils of Anaxagoras, I mean Socrates and Euripides ... (Diog. Lysias said, “If it is a fine speech, how can it fail to suit you?” “Well,” he replied, “would not fine raiment and fine shoes be just as unsuitable to me?”, Justus of Tiberias in his book entitled The Wreath says that in the course of the trial Plato mounted the platform and began: “Though I am the youngest, men of Athens, of all who ever rose to address you”-whereupon the judges shouted out, “Get down! [Plato's essential relation to Heraclitus, according to Aristotle], (Is this not like "Percepts without concepts [Forms] are blind"? The "riddle" does of course exist in religion, as do souls. a man of comparatively humble origin, that would be consistent, i.e. Socrates had died about six hundred year earlier, in 399 B.C. ... that he discussed moral questions in the workshops and the market-place, being convinced that the study of nature is no concern of ours; and that he claimed that his enquires embraced, Whatso'er is good or evil in an house [Homer, Odyssey iv 392], ... that frequently, owing to his vehemence in argument, men set upon him with their fists or tore his hair out; and that for the most part he was despised and laughed at, yet bore all this ill-usage patiently. (The quoted words are from Hamilton, The Greek Way (1942), x, p. 207; O.J. adolph kohut werke. Diogenes Laertios (vanakreeka keeles Διογένης Λαέρτιος, ladina keeles Diogenes Laërtius) oli vanakreeka filosoofide biograaf ja doksograaf Nimi. (iii, 64). This tetralogy, then, which is the first, begins with the Euthyphro ...; the Apology of Socrates ... comes second; the third is Crito ...; the fourth Phaedo .... (Diog. ], Wittgenstein classified the word 'soul' among the superstition words. Nevertheless, for man guided by reason alone, the only reason to eat is to maintain the body's health, and, like exercise, eating only so much as is agreeable to the soul (cf. L. ii, 36-37), After Socrates, in the Athens of those days, in Xenophon's Symposium (ii, 9-10), when marriage is discussed, observes that because "a woman's talent is not at all inferior to a man's", a wife may be taught by her husband, Antisthenes asks about Xanthippe: "Why do you not, then, teach good temper to yours?" That lesson in wisdom appears very difficult to learn, because when a donkey -- or even a donkey's shadow (There was a Greek expression "not worth a donkey's shadow", and foolish words are the shadow of vice, as the man intent on vicious deeds is the donkey itself) -- kicks me I often seem unable to stop myself from kicking it back -- i.e. L. iii, 67), a work I have never read. When his wife said, “you suffer unjustly,” he retorted, “Why would you have me suffer justly?” He had a dream that someone said to him: On the third day thou shalt come to the fertile fields of Phthia; And he told Aeschines, “On the third day I shall die.” When he was about to drink the hemlock, Apollodorus offered him a beautiful garment to die in: “What,” said he, “is my own good enough to live in but not to die in?” When he was told that So-and-so spoke ill of him, he replied, “True, for he has never learnt to speak well.” When Antisthenes turned his cloak so that the tear in it came into view, “I see,” said he, “your vanity through your cloak.” To one, who said, “Don’t you find so-and-so very offensive?” his reply was, “No, for it takes two to make a quarrel.” We ought not to object, he used to say, to be subjects for the Comic poets, for it they satirize out faults they will do us good, and if not they do not touch us. When Alcibiades declared that the scolding of Xanthippe was intolerable, "Nay, I have got used to it," said he, "... you do not mind the cackle of geese. To answer my own question: One way would be by proving that causality is a category of perception rather than of reality itself, thus pushing Kant to seek for other such categories, e.g. I’ve every right; I’m helped by Socrates. Diogenes Laertius. [In which sense of 'possible', for of course anything whatever that can be described is logically possible (by definition).]. var grískur heimspekingur frá Aþenu.Hann fæddist á meðan gullöld Aþenu stóð. He wants to judge the truth of every proposition by using the eye of the soul. L. ii, 27), ... you stalk along the streets, rolling your eyes, and endure, barefoot, many a hardship ... [ibid. But Plato, after mentioning Anaxagoras and certain other physicists in the Apology, treats for his own part themes which Socrates disowned, although he puts everything into the mouth of Socrates. Plato, Apology 41c-d], but that they know all our thoughts. Jowett). of philosophical propositions, doctrines or speculations; cf. He recommended to the young the constant use of the mirror, to the end that handsome men might acquire a corresponding behaviour, and ugly men conceal their defects by education. Someone asked him whether he should marry, or not, and received the reply, “Whichever you do you will repent it.” He use to express his astonishment that the sculptors of marble statues should take pains to make the block of marble into a perfect likeness of a man, and should take no pains about themselves lest they should turn out mere blocks, not men. ], On the other hand, according to some accounts, Pythagoras and Plato invented our concept 'soul' as 'the unified seat or solitary locus [-- but it is nonsense to speak of the location of what does not exist in space; nor can this be a metaphor, because a metaphor can be restated in prose, but just try --] of intelligence, memory, feeling'. Diog. Plato, Euthyphro 3b). (+/- 25 years) Socrates. das urteil und andere prosa von franz kafka buch thalia. uttering undefined sounds), then ... what is he doing? What is the "original home" of the word 'soul'? Audio. L. ii, 23), When Xanthippe was chiding Socrates for making scanty preparation for entertaining his friends, he answered: -- "If they are friends of ours, they will not care for that; if they are not, we shall care nothing for them!" Is what Plato tries to do -- namely, Rationalism -- a misunderstanding of the logic [-- that is, the "grammar" --] of our language? But as we read, Socrates "was the first who discoursed on the conduct of life" (Diog. L. iii, 63), ... he often uses different terms to express the same thing. Sokrates gør i en periode på omkring 40 … Concepts belong to the soul's eye. For he had the skill to draw his arguments from facts. Most proper to man is reason (in contrast to instinct or thoughtlessness); reason is the tool he must use to discover the life that is the good for himself ("Know thyself"), e.g. And he says the Idea is neither in motion nor at rest; that it is uniformly the same and yet both one and many. Attic Nights viii; Socrates' home. Aeschines said to him, “I am a poor man and have nothing else to give, but I offer you myself,” and Socrates answered, “Nay, do you not see that you are offering me the greatest gift of all?” To one complained that he was overlooked when the Thirty rose to power, he said, “You are not sorry for that, are you?” To one who said, “You are condemned by the Atheniansn to die,: he made answer, “So are they , by nature.” But some ascribe this Anazagoras. He was formidable in public speaking, according to Idomeneus; moreover, a Zenophon tells us, the Thirty forbade him to teach the art of words. "it was the practice of Socrates to ask questions but not to give answers, for he confessed what he did not know", treats for his own part themes which Socrates disowned, although he puts everything into the mouth of Socrates. I think that my angry reaction is justified although I say it is not. ... he considers wisdom to be the science of those things which are objects of thought and really existent, the science which, he says, is concerned with God and the soul as separate from the body. Rouse; Jowett's translation is: "grandpapa's master"). Here 'great independence' I take to mean: Socrates acted in accord with what "discourse with himself" showed him to be best, neither dependent on the judgment nor on the wealth of anyone else for his way of life. He was put in prison, and a few days afterwards drank the hemlock, after much noble discourse which Plato records in the Phaedo. At all events he served on the expedition to Amphipolis; and when in the battle stepped in and saved his life. picture -- is a point of interest, or at least of charm. Outline of this page... Socrates, ethics, death, and life diogenes laertios < > Most recent. Scurra Atticus eller det største dydsmønster – dansk Sokrates i det 18. århundrede1 af Tonny Aagaard Olesen Det første Skridt til Kundskab er Følelse af sin Vankundighed2 I det 18. århundredes Danmark blev Sokrates dyrket som menneskehedens moralske They banished the other accusers but put Meletus to death; they honoured Socrates with a bronze statute, the work of Lysippus, which they placed in the hall of processions. For instance, he calls the Idea  "form", "genus", "archetype", "principle", and "cause". Σωκράτης, Sōkratēs; 470/469–399 eaa.) And again he calls Euripides "an engine riveted by Socrates.” And Callias in The Captives: A. Pray why so solemn, why this lofty air?B. Of those who bear the name of Socrates there is one, a historian, who wrote a geographical work upon Argos; another, a Peripathetic philosopher of Bithynia; a third, a poet who wrote epigrams; lastly, Socrates of Cos, who wrote on the names of gods. el. Diogenes Laertios (m.kreik. Xenofon (430-355 f.Kr. For Anytus could not endure to be ridiculed by Socrates, and so in the first place stirred up against him Aristophanes and his friends; then afterwards he helped to persuade Meletus to indict him on a charge of impiety and corrupting the youth.

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